Chawla’s father was an Army officer and her mother is a Bali Chawla. She moved to Mumbai in 1997 and started her career with Ad films and Hindi music video albums. She has two elder siblings. Bhumika Chawla married her long-time boyfriend and Yoga teacher Bharat Thakur on 21 October 2007 at Devlali, Nashik in a Gurdwara. The couple has a son born on February 2014.
She made her film debut in the Telugu film Yuvakudu in 2000 and appeared in over thirty films in Telugu, Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Bhojpuri, and Punjabi. Her second release, Kushi in 2001 was a box office success and she acted in several films in Telugu in 2003, Okkadu and Simhadri , both became year's highest grosser in Telugu.
Meanwhile, she made her debut in the Tamil film industry as well; starring in the film Badri in 2001 and her second film was Roja Kootam. After a number of critically and commercially successful films in the South, Chawla starred in her first Bollywood film, Tere Naam in 2003. The film was one of the year's highest grosser. Subsequently, she got to star in a number of Hindi films as Dil Ne Jise Apna Kahaa, Silsilay and Dil Jo Bhi Kahey... In 2006, Chawla appeared in the Tamil film Sillunu Oru Kaadhal, a big hit worldwide. In 2008, she made her debut in the Punjabi film industry, starring in Yaariyan, which she debuted in Malayalam as well, starring in Bhramaram. Her upcoming movies are Pen Adimai Illai, 90 Minutes.